Cryptography seems to be all the rage these days: it is a method to strongly prove the occurrence of an event, and no one can question the universal truth of mathematics. The blockchain hype merely serves as witness to this trend toward cryptographic verification.
I see cryptography as a topic long avoided by mainstream software developers due to its core functionality being backed by pure math, a field which software developers are either not fond of or not competent in (or both). It is often perceived as a “black box” which ought not to be touched or recreated, lest one’s application be infested with thousands of security issues. However, cryptography is not purely math, and today, well-tested abstractions exist to make common cryptographic applications understandable and implementable.
Online video games tend to be backed by a central or master server, which places two main liabilities on the part of the maintainer of the game:
- the responsibility of the maintainer to secure personal information within the server (such as email addresses and passwords) and to report security breaches; and
- the regular maintenance of the server, which is essential to maintaining the ability for players to use the game.
However, as time progresses, the maintainer of a game is more likely to renege on these responsibilities for economic reasons, either causing the player’s experience to be significantly degraded or rendering the game entirely unplayable.
However, replacing a master server is not the main focus of this writing; rather, I wish to discuss an important issue in online games: who to trust.
I wish we could trust everyone – however, when a game gets sufficiently large, it becomes statistically likely for a player to decide to cheat or flood a server to attempt to break the game experience – in which case now there is one player we cannot trust.
With the rising popularity of virtual private networks and proxies, anonymity is king. It is nearly impossible to uniquely identify a player without prompting for a particular set of credentials by a master server. Even then, it is easy for a banned player to create new credentials and begin cheating or spamming again – the natural response is to increase the amount of personal information prompted by the central server, but this likewise increases the liability held by the owner.
One approach to mitigate this problem is by employing a cryptosystem specifically designed to solve the problem of trust – in our case, who should be allowed into a server, and who should not. OpenPGP is one such well-established system that uses a decentralized web of trust to systematically determine who can be trusted, without the liability of a centralized server or unintentionally restricting legitimate users from playing (such as banning an excessively large IP range, or requiring users to provide personal information that violates some users’ privacy).
The reason OpenPGP lacks adoption is primarily because of its unintuitive nature and its dependence on everyone to use the system in order for its individual users to benefit from it (a collective action problem). However, the limited domain in which OpenPGP would operate allows it to be enforced behind the veil of abstraction. Users will never need to know what “keys” or “signing” are – they only know that they have an identity that they can optionally secure with a password. They can also “like” other users. If their identity becomes compromised, they can choose to “destroy” it forever. Behind the scenes, keys have a six-month expiration date that is automatically renewed simply by playing the game.
On the server side, the server operates an extended whitelist based off a basic whitelist that lists primary identities that are fully trusted. Identities that are (indirectly) trusted by those primary identities may also be allowed to join the server. After the authentication succeeds, the server can reliably recognize the identity of a player, useful if the player has a specific rank or level on that server.
If all servers are whitelisted, then how can new players join? An optional centralized server can automatically grant new players trust temporarily, which allows them to join “newbie” servers and gain trust until they find themselves allowed into other servers. While this disincentivizes curiosity, this incentivizes playing in the same server as others, as well as social integration into the community. Alternatively, new players can also request trust through a side channel, such as a community chat server or forum outside of the game.
If a player has lost the trust of the community by breaking a major rule or through social engineering, other players can revoke trust just as easily as they imparted it: the OpenPGP system allows for signature revocation.
In short, an ideal implementation of public key-based infrastructure in video games would be seamless to users, eliminate the costly upkeep of a strong centralized server, and encourage regular social activity.